Arthritis disease – medical information in daily life
Arthritis is inflammation of one or more joints. The main symptoms of arthritis are pain and stiffness, which get worse with age. The most common types of arthritis are osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis.
Osteoarthritis destroys cartilage, the tough, slippery tissue that covers the ends of bones where joints form. Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease that initially targets the synovium.
Uric acid crystals, infection, or an underlying disease such as psoriasis or lupus erythematosus can lead to other types of arthritis.
Most signs and symptoms of osteoarthritis affect the joints. Depending on the type of arthritis you have, you may have the following signs and symptoms:
- the pain.
- Slow motion speed.
Causes of arthritis
The two main types of arthritis, osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis, damage joints in different ways.
Osteoarthritis, the most common type of arthritis, involves wear and tear of the meniscus, the hard, slippery layer at the ends of bones. Sufficient damage can result in direct friction between the bones, resulting in pain and restricted movement. This damage can occur over several years, or it can be accelerated by joint injuries or infections.
Rheumatoid arthritis diseases
When this happens, the body’s immune system attacks the lining of the joint capsule, the tough membrane that surrounds all parts of the joint. This lining, known as the synovium, becomes inflamed and swollen. The disease can eventually destroy the cartilage and bone in the joint.
Risk factors for osteoporosis
The risk factors for this disease are:
- Family history: Some types of arthritis run in families, so you may be more likely to develop arthritis if one of your parents or siblings has the condition. Your genes can make you more susceptible to environmental factors that can lead to osteoporosis.
- Age: The risk of developing many types of infections increases with age, including osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and gout.
- Gender: Women are more likely to develop rheumatoid arthritis than men, while most people with gout are men.
- Previous joint injury: People who have injured a joint, possibly while playing sports, are more likely to develop osteoarthritis in that joint.
- Obesity: Being overweight puts stress on joints, especially the knees, hips, and spine, making people with obesity more likely to develop arthritis.
Severe arthritis, especially if it affects the hands or arms, can make it difficult to perform daily tasks. Arthritis in stressed joints can prevent you from walking comfortably or sitting upright. In some cases, joints can become twisted and deformed.
Diagnosis of arthritis
During the physical exam, your doctor will check your joints for swelling, redness, and warmth. He may also want to see how well you can move your joints. Depending on the type of arthritis suspected, your doctor may suggest some of the following tests:
Analyzing the different types of body fluids can help determine the type of arthritis you have. Fluids commonly analyzed include blood, urine, and synovial fluid. Your doctor will take a sample of synovial fluid to clean and numb the area before inserting a needle into the joint space to absorb some of the fluid (aspiration).
These types of tests can identify joint problems that can lead to symptoms, including:
With low radiation exposure for bone visualization, X-rays can show cartilage loss, bone damage, and bone spurs. X-rays may not be able to detect inflamed joint damage early, but they are often used to track disease progression.
A CT scan takes X-rays from several different angles and combines the information to create cross-sectional images of internal structures. A CT scan can show both bone and surrounding soft tissue.
By combining radio waves with a strong magnetic field, an MRI can produce more detailed cross-sectional images of soft tissues such as cartilage, tendons, and ligaments.
This technique uses high-frequency sound waves to image soft tissue, cartilage, and fluid-containing structures such as a bursa. An ultrasound scan is used to guide the position of the needle used for suctioning and injecting the joint.
Arthritis disease treatment
Arthritis treatment focuses on relieving symptoms and improving joint function. You may need to try several different treatments, or a combination of treatments, before you can decide what’s best for you.
The medications used to treat this disease vary depending on the type of arthritis. Commonly used arthritis medications are:
These drugs help relieve pain, but have no effect on inflammation. Examples include acetaminophen, tramadol, and medicines that contain oxycodone or hydrocodone.
Helps reduce pain and inflammation. Over-the-counter NSAIDs include ibuprofen and naproxen sodium. Only some types of NSAIDs are available by prescription. Oral NSAIDs can irritate the stomach, and some can increase the risk of heart attack or stroke. These medications are also available in cream or gel form that can be rubbed on the joints.
There are several different types of creams and ointments that contain menthol or capsaicin, the main ingredient in hot peppers. Rubbing these products on the skin over a painful joint can interfere with the transmission of pain signals from the joint itself.
Disease-modifying drugs and antirheumatics
DMARDs are widely used to treat rheumatoid arthritis by slowing or preventing the immune system from attacking the joints. Examples include methotrexate and hydroxychloroquine.
Vital response rates
Typically used in combination with disease-modifying anti-inflammatory drugs (ARMDs), these are genetically modified drugs that target different protein molecules involved in the immune response. Examples include etanercept and infliximab.
This class of drugs, which includes prednisone and cortisone, help reduce inflammation and suppress the immune system. Corticosteroids can be taken orally or injected directly into a painful joint.
treatment or treatment
Physical therapy can help treat some types of arthritis. Exercises can help improve your range of motion and strengthen the muscles around your joints. In some cases, bars or brackets may be used.
If conservative measures don’t work, your doctor may suggest surgery, including:
In some cases, joint surfaces can be smoothed or realigned to relieve pain and improve function. These types of procedures are often done arthroscopically through small incisions over the joint.
Ankle joint replacement
This procedure involves removing the damaged joint and replacing it with an artificial joint. The most common joints replaced are the hips and knees.
This procedure is most commonly used for smaller joints such as the wrists, ankles, and fingers. He removes the ends of the two bones in the joint, then ties these two ends together until they are healed, and then come back as a cohesive unit.
Lifestyle and some home remedies
In many cases, arthritis symptoms can be relieved by:
- Lose weight: If you are obese, losing weight can help reduce stress on weight-bearing joints, increase mobility, and reduce future joint injuries.
- Exercise: Regular exercise can help maintain joint flexibility. Swimming and water aerobics can be good options because buoyancy in the water reduces stress on weight-bearing joints.
- Hot and cold compresses, hot compresses, or ice cubes can help relieve arthritis pain.
- Aids: Walking canes, crutches, toilet seats, and other aids can help protect your joints and improve your ability to complete daily tasks.
Many people use alternative treatments for their arthritis, but there is little reliable evidence to support the use of many of these products. Some promising alternative treatments for osteoporosis include:
- Acupuncture: This treatment uses thin needles into specific areas of the skin to relieve many types of pain, including pain caused by some types of arthritis.
- Glucosamine, although studies have been mixed, it now appears that glucosamine does no better than a placebo. However, both glucosamine and a placebo are better at relieving arthritis pain than taking nothing, especially in people with moderate to severe pain.
- Yoga or tai chi. The slow, extended movements associated with yoga and tai chi can help improve joint flexibility and range of motion in people with arthritis.
- Massage: Gently massaging and kneading (a type of massage) muscles can increase blood flow and warm affected joints, providing temporary relief from pain. Make sure the massage therapist knows which joints are affected by arthritis.
Preparing for a doctor’s appointment
You can first discuss your symptoms with your family doctor and you can be referred to a doctor who specializes in joint problems for further diagnosis.
What should I do?
Before your appointment, write a list of the following content:
- A detailed description of your symptoms.
- Information about any medical problems you have had in the past.
- Information about your parents or siblings’ medical problems.
- All medications and supplements you take.
- Questions to ask your doctor
What do you expect from your doctor?
Your doctor may ask you some of the following questions:
- When did your symptoms start?
- Does activity improve or increase pain?
- What is joint pain?
- Do you have a family history of joint pain?