Symptoms of diabetes insipidus: main causes and treatments

Symptoms of diabetes insipidus: main causes and treatments


Diabetes insipidus can lead to severe dehydration. Therefore, it is necessary to know the most important symptoms of diabetes insipidus and to know the main causes and methods of diagnosis and treatment to prevent complications of the condition.

diabetes insipidus

Diabetes insipidus is a rare hormonal disorder that leads to an imbalance of fluids in the body. This can make you feel very thirsty and cause your body to pass large amounts of urine, which in turn increases your risk of dehydration. Although its symptoms are similar to those of diabetes, they are different.

The difference between diabetes mellitus and diabetes insipidus

Diabetes is caused by resistance or deficiency of the hormone insulin, which leads to high blood sugar levels. While diabetes insipidus causes an imbalance of fluids in the body, and therefore frequent urination more than usual, it occurs with increased thirst. The symptoms of diabetes insipidus are different from those of diabetes, but there are some common symptoms.

Causes of diabetes insipidus

It is considered one of the causes of diabetes insipidus according to the following types:

1. Central diabetes insipidus

Central diabetes insipidus is the most common type that can result from an injury to the pituitary gland that blocks the secretion of the hormone vasopressin that regulates body fluids, a head injury, a tumor, or surgery that blocks antibiotic production. for diuresis.

2. Diabetes insipidus

This type occurs when the renal tubules fail, preventing the kidneys from responding properly to antidiuretic hormone (ADH). Diabetes insipidus can also be caused by a genetic disorder or by taking certain medications.

3. Gestational diabetes insipidus

It is a rare disease that occurs during pregnancy as a result of the destruction of antidiuretic hormone by an enzyme produced by the mother’s placenta.

Symptoms of diabetes insipidus

The most common symptoms of all cases of diabetes insipidus are:

  • excessive urination
  • extreme thirst
  • Tendency to drink more cold drinks
  • Difficulty sleeping from frequent urination at night
  • drought

The amount of urine collected in severe cases can reach about 19 liters per day with excessive drinking, while a healthy person normally urinates between 1 liter and about 2 liters per day.

Symptoms of diabetes insipidus complications

If you are severely dehydrated without treatment, your blood sodium levels may rise. Which leads to the emergence of neurological symptoms such as:

  • confusion
  • skin dryness
  • Dizziness and nausea
  • Weight loss
  • epileptic seizures
  • coma
  • Kidney damage
  • Permanent brain damage that can lead to death

Symptoms of diabetes insipidus in children

Symptoms of diabetes insipidus can vary from child to child, but the most common symptoms are:

  • sleep hard
  • Crying without knowing the reason
  • Fever
  • vomiting
  • Diarrhea
  • Weight loss
  • growth retardation

diabetes insipidus analysis

There are some tests and analyzes that doctors can use to diagnose diabetes insipidus. Tests used include:

1. Dryness test

The doctor may ask the patient to refrain from drinking fluids for several hours under medical supervision in order to measure changes in body weight and determine the concentration of urine and blood.

2. Urinalysis

The concentration of salt and other waste is determined by analyzing a urine sample. When a person has diabetes insipidus, the result of the analysis will contain a high concentration of water versus a low concentration of other waste products.

3. MRI

The purpose of this type of test is to check for any brain tissue damage that is causing the symptoms of diabetes insipidus.

4. Genetic testing

Genetic testing, or something called genetic testing, is used based on family history, and if family members develop symptoms, a doctor may recommend this test.

diabetes insipidus treatment

Treatment is not usually needed in mild cases of diabetes insipidus. In mild cases, the patient can rely on drinking more water to compensate for fluid loss with frequent urination.

However, in all cases it is recommended to consult a doctor, since the determination of treatment depends on the doctor’s diagnosis and the severity of the disease. Treatment methods for each type are:

central diabetes insipidus treatment

If you have mild symptoms, it may be necessary to drink more fluids each day. However, if central diabetes insipidus is caused by a malfunction of the pituitary gland, the cause must first be treated.

One of the most common forms of treatment is hormone therapy, which uses desmopressin, a synthetic form of the hormone vasopressin, and is taken as a tablet, injection, or nasal spray.

diabetes insipidus treatment

In renal diabetes insipidus, your doctor may recommend a low-salt diet to reduce the amount of urine your kidneys excrete. Also, drink more fluids to avoid dehydration.

However, if your symptoms of diabetes insipidus are caused by some types of medication, your doctor may help you stop or replace the medications that are causing the condition.

gestational diabetes insipidus treatment

Most cases of gestational diabetes insipidus are treated with the synthetic hormone desmopressin, which is used to control urine and stop urination.

And after identifying the symptoms of diabetes insipidus and methods of diagnosis and treatment. You should always take care of your health and consult a doctor if you suspect symptoms that may affect your health.

Natural treatments for diabetes insipidus

Following these tips can help patients manage the symptoms of diabetes insipidus:

change feeding

Changing your diet to vegetables and fruits rich in water can help people with diabetes insipidus replace lost fluids. Like eating zucchini, cucumber, spinach, kiwi and coconut water.

On the other hand, processed foods with preservatives and high sodium content should be avoided. It is also preferable to avoid soft drinks and caffeinated drinks.

Drink more fluids

People with symptoms of diabetes insipidus should drink more fluids to compensate for the loss and relieve excessive thirst, while avoiding complications of diabetes insipidus if the required treatment is not given.

Check your medicine

Some prescription medications can affect the electrolytes in the body and cause an imbalance. Therefore, it is necessary to follow the doctor’s instructions and avoid taking any medication before consulting the doctor so as not to lead to serious health complications.


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