lower back pain
Low back pain is pain in the lower back or lower back that occurs as a result of a defect or a specific disease that affects tissues or organs in that area. It can be acute or chronic (longer than 3 months). Low back pain is most common in people between the ages of 30 and 50.
The lower back consists of the lumbar vertebrae, the cartilage between them, the ligaments surrounding the vertebrae, the cartilage, the spinal cord and nerves, the lumbar muscles, the internal organs of the pelvis and abdomen, and the skin covers the lower part of the body. lower back area.
The lumbar vertebrae design supports the flexible structure and protects the spinal cord. At its end, the lumbar vertebrae are connected to the attached sacral vertebrae, which are located in the center of the buttocks and are attached on both sides to the pelvic bone of the pelvis to form the sacroiliac joints.
Each vertebra has a strong bony body in front of the spinal cord to support weight bearing, and it has a spiny protrusion behind the spinal cord which is a bony bump that protects the spinal nerve tissue. The internal organs that correspond to the lumbar vertebrae are the kidneys, uterus and ovaries in women or the prostate in men.
Back pain symptoms
Symptoms associated with lower back pain include:
- Numbness and tingling in the lower extremities.
- Localized lower back pain.
- Sciatic pain, which is pain in the leg preceded by an incision, and the pain is accompanied by numbness and tingling, and the pain increases with movement (movement of the waist area), coughing, or sneezing.
- Urinary or fecal incontinence (loss of control over urination and bowel movement).
- Inability to walk and weakness in the lower extremities.
- Muscular dystrophy.
- Skin rash, fever and chills.
- Weight loss, fatigue, dizziness.
- Abdominal pain or burning when urinating.
- pain in the joints.
Causes of back pain
Low back pain causes include:
strong lumbar expansion
It is a stretching injury to the ligaments, tendons, or muscles of the lower back that causes a tear.
Nerve irritation occurs as a result of mechanical pressure (impact) from bone or other tissues, or from disease along a nerve from its roots in the spinal cord to anywhere in the body.
Neuropathic radiculopathy is nerve irritation caused by atrophy or damage to the cartilage between the vertebrae. This condition occurs in every part of the spine.
bony invasion of the spinal nerves
It is any condition that causes movement or growth of the bony vertebrae in the spine, resulting in narrowing of the lumen of the spinal cord or the lumen of the neural pathway, such as the lumbar spinal canal.
Bone and joint defects
Some of these defects are congenital or caused by aging or injury, and some are caused by arthritis.
Such as scoliosis and the presence of a fissure in the spine.
The erosion of bones and joints with age occurs as a result of the change in the water and protein content of the cartilage in the body, which leads to thinness, weakness and easy breakage of cartilage such as spondylosis or vertebral degeneration, degenerative joint infections and spondyloarthritis. or fractures.
Other causes of back pain are:
- Kidney disease, pregnancy, ovarian disease or tumors.
- Paget’s disease of bone.
- Bleeding, infection of the pelvis or cartilage and bones of the spine, aortic aneurysm, or viral neuritis.
Risk factors for lower back pain
There are a few factors that can increase the incidence of back pain, including the following:
- Age between 30 and 50.
- Sedentary lifestyle.
- This pain is uncommon in children, but it can appear from carrying school bags with books and tools.
- Some jobs can put constant or heavy stress on the spine, such as carrying heavy weights.
- Some mental disorders such as depression and anxiety.
Back pain complications
Complications that can arise from low back pain include:
- Severe impairment of spinal function.
- Nervous bladder and urinary incontinence.
- Chronic pain that interferes with daily activities and functions.
Low back pain diagnosis
Your doctor will diagnose low back pain using one of the following methods:
- Medical history, which includes medical history and the onset and progression of symptoms.
- Complete physical examination of the spine, nerves, abdomen, legs and rectal and pelvic exam.
- X ray.
- Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
- CT scan (CT scan).
- Nerve conduction velocity test.
- Electromyography to assess muscle condition.
Back pain treatment
Conditions that cause lower back pain are treated based on the condition:
The medical treatment
It includes rest to relieve pain and muscle cramps.
They are performed with the help of heat, rehabilitation exercises, exercises to strengthen the muscles of the lower back and increase their flexibility, massage, ultrasound therapy and electrical stimulation. This includes avoiding lumbar injuries or lifting heavy weights.
- Pain relievers such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen.
- A muscle relaxant to relieve muscle spasms.
- Local cortisone injections into the spinal cord.
- Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
In the case of severe pain or incontinence, the doctor will resort to surgery. The operation depends on the age of the patient. And his general health, from which the lumbar pressure was removed by one of the following operations:
- Remove the herniated disc by drilling a small hole in the spine around the spinal cord.
- Removal of the adjacent bony wall of nerve tissue.
- Percutaneous meniscus resection with a needle.
- The process of dissolving the disc (chemical dissolution of the nucleus).
- Surgical treatment of vertebral fractures.
- Spine correction or vertebroplasty.
Prevent back pain
You can avoid lower back pain by:
- Avoid injuries to the lower back.
- Exercises to strengthen the lumbar spine and adjacent tissues.
- Avoid lifting heavy weights or taking the wrong sitting position for long periods of time.